Civilizations and Migrations
15,000 BCE: Upper Palaeolithic
When the first humans appeared in this area, they shared the land with Pleistocene animals such as the steppe elephant and the mammoth.
Relics found: arrowheads belonging to Palaeolithic Reindeer Hunters; flint axes and stone hatchets; Neolithic copper axes from Transcarpathial; quern-stones, spindle whorls, tools and weapons made of bronze, glass items, and pottery fragments.
In the Bronze Age, the Subcarpathian region was characterized by multiculturalism.
Stone Age man created a massive network of underground tunnels criss-crossing Europe from Scotland to Turkey, a new book on the ancient superhighways has claimed.
German archaeologist Dr Heinrich Kusch said evidence of the tunnels has been found under hundreds of Neolithic settlements all over the continent.
Underground structures even whole cities are described in myths and religions. A strange light emanates in those underground realms which has also been mentioned as the hollow earth inner sun.
4700 and 4200 BCE
Europe’s oldest prehistoric town unearthed in Bulgaria
BBC News, 31 October 2012
Archaeologists in Bulgaria say they have uncovered the oldest prehistoric town found to date in Europe.
The walled fortified settlement, near the modern town of Provadia, is thought to have been an important centre for salt production.
Its discovery in north-east Bulgaria may explain the huge gold hoard found nearby 40 years ago.
Excavations at the site, beginning in 2005, have also uncovered the remains of two-storey houses, a series of pits used for rituals, as well as parts of a gate and bastion structures.
5400 – 2000 BCE
A Neolithic–Bronze Age culture that existed in Right-Bank Ukraine ca 5400 to 2000 BC. The Trypilians were primitive agricultural and cattle-raising tribes that migrated to Ukraine from the Near East and from the Balkans and Danubian regions.
They built pit and semi-pit dwellings with clay floors and hearths or ovens, and walls of wattle and dab. Clay altars, usually either round or cross-shaped, were commonly constructed in dwellings. Settlements were established by clans and contained 15 to 30 dwellings. In later settlements houses often had a rounded floor plan, and they were arranged in a circle for defensive purposes and to pen livestock in a central enclosure.
The basic tools of the Trypilian culture were made of stone, bone, and flint. Some small bronze items, especially fishhooks, bracelets, and rings, have been found. The tribes of the culture traded with peoples in the Balkans or Transylvania (the source of copper found at Luka-Vrublivetska) and on the Aegean (this was especially true of tribes located in southern Ukraine). Weaving also developed, although the looms remained rather primitive.
The Trypilian culture is especially known for its ceramic pottery. In the early period, handbuilt large pear-shaped vessels for storing grains, various types of pots, plates, spoons, colanders, and the like were all common. Earthenware was also used to make figurines of women, scale models of homes, jewelry, and amulets. The exterior of the pottery was decorated with inscribed ornamentation in the form of spiralling bands of parallel double lines.
The Trypilians initially had a matriarchal-clan order.
Long list of symbols used on Trypllian pottery. Page is enabled to translate to English.
2000 BCE: Ukrainians and Celts
It is believed some genetic traits were brought by people from the Pontic Steppe – a Black Sea region stretching across modern Ukraine, Russia and Georgia – who journeyed to Ireland when the region became a farming and metal work hub.
(The above link includes a migration map.)
300 BCE: Celts and Ukrainians
Bonds of Blood – On Inter-Ethnic Marriage in the Iron Age
by Brendan Mac Gonagle on Academia.edu
A number of exceptional archaeological discoveries from southeastern Europe have thrown new light on the social and cultural relations between the various ‘barbarian’ peoples who inhabited this region in the pre-Roman period.
1400 – 1500 CE
(to be read; shared characteristics of Inca and Hutsul cultures)