Weaving Gold

Mokosha, Anastasia Sophia, and Me, Natalia . . . while the books are written

Civilizations and Migrations


15,000 BCE: Upper Palaeolithic


When the first humans appeared in this area, they shared the land with Pleistocene animals such as the steppe elephant and the mammoth.

Relics found: arrowheads belonging to Palaeolithic Reindeer Hunters; flint axes and stone hatchets; Neolithic copper axes from Transcarpathial; quern-stones, spindle whorls, tools and weapons made of bronze, glass items, and pottery fragments.

In the Bronze Age, the Subcarpathian region was characterized by multiculturalism.

10,000 BCE

Going underground: The massive European network of Stone Age tunnels that weaves from Scotland to Turkey

Stone Age man created a massive network of underground tunnels criss-crossing Europe from Scotland to Turkey, a new book on the ancient superhighways has claimed.

German archaeologist Dr Heinrich Kusch said evidence of the tunnels has been found under hundreds of Neolithic settlements all over the continent.

Underground cities and networks around the World – Myths and Reality (Part 1)

Underground structures even whole cities are described in myths and religions. A strange light emanates in those underground realms which has also been mentioned as the hollow earth  inner sun.

4700 and 4200 BCE

Europe’s oldest prehistoric town unearthed in Bulgaria
BBC News, 31 October 2012

UnknownArchaeologists in Bulgaria say they have uncovered the oldest prehistoric town found to date in Europe.

The walled fortified settlement, near the modern town of Provadia, is thought to have been an important centre for salt production.

Its discovery in north-east Bulgaria may explain the huge gold hoard found nearby 40 years ago.

Excavations at the site, beginning in 2005, have also uncovered the remains of two-storey houses, a series of pits used for rituals, as well as parts of a gate and bastion structures.


5400 – 2000 BCE

Trypillian Culture
from EncyclopediaofUkraine.com

A Neolithic–Bronze Age culture that existed in Right-Bank Ukraine ca 5400 to 2000 BC. The Trypilians were primitive agricultural and cattle-raising tribes that migrated to Ukraine from the Near East and from the Balkans and Danubian regions.

They built pit and semi-pit dwellings with clay floors and hearths or ovens, and walls of wattle and dab. Clay altars, usually either round or cross-shaped, were commonly constructed in dwellings. Settlements were established by clans and contained 15 to 30 dwellings. In later settlements houses often had a rounded floor plan, and they were arranged in a circle for defensive purposes and to pen livestock in a central enclosure.

The basic tools of the Trypilian culture were made of stone, bone, and flint. Some small bronze items, especially fishhooks, bracelets, and rings, have been found. The tribes of the culture traded with peoples in the Balkans or Transylvania (the source of copper found at Luka-Vrublivetska) and on the Aegean (this was especially true of tribes located in southern Ukraine). Weaving also developed, although the looms remained rather primitive.

486126fe61bd0bffe65948dd0c5406ca.jpgThe Trypilian culture is especially known for its ceramic pottery. In the early period, handbuilt large pear-shaped vessels for storing grains, various types of pots, plates, spoons, colanders, and the like were all common. Earthenware was also used to make figurines of women, scale models of homes, jewelry, and amulets. The exterior of the pottery was decorated with inscribed ornamentation in the form of spiralling bands of parallel double lines.

The Trypilians initially had a matriarchal-clan order.

Symbols in Trypillian Pottery

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Symbol for link/communication of ages

Long list of symbols used on Trypllian pottery. Page is enabled to translate to English.

2000 BCE: Ukrainians and Celts

Irish people originate from the MIDDLE EAST: Celtic DNA shows farming led to a ‘wave of immigrants’ entering Ireland 4,000 years ago 

It is believed some genetic traits were brought by people from the Pontic Steppe – a Black Sea region stretching across modern Ukraine, Russia and Georgia – who journeyed to Ireland when the region became a farming and metal work hub.

(The above link includes a migration map.)

Ancient DNA tells tales of humans’ migrant history
Source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute [February 21, 2018]

Archaeologists have long known that some of the technologies used by the Yamnaya later spread to Europe. But the startling revelation from the ancient DNA was that the people moved, too – all the way to the Atlantic coast of Europe in the west to Mongolia in the east and India in the south. This vast migration helps explain the spread of Indo-European languages. And it significantly replaced the local hunter-gatherer genes across Europe with the indelible stamp of steppe DNA, as happened in Britain with the migration of the Bell Beaker people to the island.

300 BCE: Celts and Ukrainians

by Brendan Mac Gonagle on Academia.edu
From the beginning of the 3rd century BC the territory of modern Ukraine, previously defined by the Scythians of the North Pontic steppes and Hellenistic influences from the Black Sea zone, was supplemented by the Celtic culture from the west. 

Bonds of Blood – On Inter-Ethnic Marriage in the Iron Age
by Brendan Mac Gonagle on Academia.edu

A number of exceptional archaeological discoveries from southeastern Europe have thrown new light on the social and cultural relations between the various ‘barbarian’ peoples who inhabited this region in the pre-Roman period.

1400 – 1500 CE

Інки танцюють гопак

(to be read; shared characteristics of Inca and Hutsul cultures)

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